From the early day’s people used wood to make their houses but by the passage of time, the techniques, which are utilized in the making of places, are changed. The basic concept of those made from the wood is the same such as pillaring and framing. People use many types of wood to make their houses, but there are several problems with the wooden frame. The chief problem among many is that the wood is sensitive to weather and weather can make wear and tear in the wood. So the type of wood should be chosen precisely.
The hardness and strength of timber depending on the composition of its cells. The more the section is locked, the more power there would be in the wood. And if the cells are a bit apart, the timber would be softer and lighter. Capacity depends on several other variables as well. The strength of the wood will be diminished if there are knots, gaps or deterioration in the timber. Elasticity is also a property of wood related to the structure of its cells. More elasticity means the wood is more resilient and more strain can be handled. But depending on the use, the timber sort is used.
If the timber cell walls are dense, the timber would be tougher to make it a more substantial building material, similarly, if the cell walls are thin, the wood is soft and can be used where softwood needs to be used. Moisture in the wood also plays a role in the hardness of the wood. It is made softer by more water in the timber. For construction purposes, hardwood is prepared over softwood because it is more softwood-resistant. Within the wood, trapped air renders the property known as wood density. More trapped air implies that wood will be less dense and less trapped attitude means that wood will be thicker.
Sustainability-managed forests contribute a great deal to the timber industry. The timber’s colour is due to the time it takes to dry. By the passing of time, certain types of wood become pale or lighter in colour, but by the passage of time, certain types of wood become darker as Cedar darkens, but with time, sapwood becomes pale. Timber odour plays a vital role for some time when used for such purposes, as some wood has a pleasing scent and some do not, some can repel insects and some can attract. The smell is due to the presence of wood-based oils (Interiordezine.com, 2011).
In making dyes and insect repellents, these oils are often used too. By destroying or waxing the wood or even using such preservatives, the life of the wood extends by helping to sustain the environmental impact. The use of special varnish and synthetic wax forms helps the timer to support even the worst weather. Some dyes are made such that the timber can also resist fire. Some woods, too, have fire-resistant characteristics. In contrast to the other types of wood, these types of wood can withstand fire for a longer time (Interiordezine.com, 2011).
To get the necessary full shapes from a log, wood logs are cut into various shapes and sizes. To raise the resistance of the timber, the wood logs are then seasoned. Corrosion often happens in the metals that are related to the wood, which is the result of the wood being less seasoned. In varying weather conditions, wood cells swell and contract. The strength of persistent or treated wood is about the same as that of untreated or unpreserved lumber, but the treated wood is more resistant to various weather conditions (Greenhalgh, 1929).
For construction purposes, timber is divided into three groups. Structural, structural appearance and appearance are the three classes in which wood is classified. Different types of wood are classified according to their strength during structural grading. Often, the structural grade is also referred to as stress grading. The other two are described as their presence and influence.
Timber framings of houses have many parts and sections. Some of the significant features of timber frame are rafters, truss, studs and sometimes lintels. These are the essential part of the structure. There are two types of timber frames construction systems which can be distinguished according to the construction. The two timber frame construction systems are utilized in a different situation. Now a day, the most used timber frame construction system is platform framing. In the platform framing system, a platform is built, which is ubiquitous. The platform is made of concrete or some other such material. The other timber frame construction system is known as a balloon frame construction system which is a bit older construction system, but at some places, it is still in use to build small structures. Balloon framing system is also referred to as Chicago framing system (Greenhalgh, 1929).
In early centuries balloon framing construction technique is not considered as an appropriate method for the construction of houses and other buildings as the framing technique has no base or foundation and many people believed that the such constructed structure is unable to stand and will be blown away by the wind. But the construction technique allowed even three stories buildings like apartment buildings to stand. In balloon framing technique there is always a deficient of a platform for the workers to work in the structure and it also requires scaffolding around the building to reach the top sides of the walls (Davies and Jokiniemi, 2008). There is always a need for elongated framing constituents in the balloon framing method. Balloon construction provided an ease to the farmers and other less skilled persons because the construction methods require fewer skills. Now a day the balloon constructed structures are less efficient and need more thermal energy to warm the facilities. Now a new material called steel is more in use as compared to timber as it is more fire-resistant.
A concrete foundation is a significant feature employed in platform framing construction method. Some other material such as treated timber or some other treated organic or inorganic material can also be utilized to use it as the foundation for the platform framing method. In platform framing method foundation wall rests on a sill plate which is joined to the sill plate by employing a particular type of bolts known as ‘j’ bolts. Timber is utilized to frame the structure for a specific size and generates a frame by nailing the frame (Davies and Jokiniemi, 2008).
Studs make a frame for the exterior as well as interior walls. Studs are placed both in vertical order and in horizontal order to support walls. At the corner, more than one stud posts are required to reinforce walls. Minimum two studs post are needed, and three stud posts are a better configuration for the corners of the frame. The roof of the building is framed by utilizing truss and a roof support structure. A truss is a triangular structure to support roof structure. It provides additional support to the roof stricture (Davies and Jokiniemi, 2008).
Purlin is a structure that is present in the roof frame. It is the central part of the roof structure and supports the load of the roof and other things which make roofs such as deck and principal rafters. Purlins have a bit longer span as compared to that of the rafters. In a typical truss construction principle rafters of the truss supports purlins (Greenhalgh, 1929).
Timber roof trusses involve two types of construction. The two methods are king post trusses and queen post trusses. The king post trusses apply a single vertical king post. Such a roof consists of two principal rafters, tie beam, strut, purlin, common rafter, ridge board and the most important and significant part a king post. The queen post trusses involve two vertical queen posts. This type of roof construction involves similar features as that of the king post trusses require, but the two additional components that the building need are straining beam and straining sill. The size of the roof is dependent on the construction as well as the strength of the timber (Greenhalgh, 1929).
A typical timber frame house has a horizontal timber structure and a vertical timber structure. The vertical timber structure consists of posts at the corners and some other posts and wall studs to support the exterior and inner walls. Beams and sills are two primary components which are included in the horizontal frame structure. The slope frame structures have maintained their significant position by holding the systems like a roof. The slope framing structure consists of trusses, braces and herringbone. Herringbone is usually angled at 45 degrees as it provides support and enhancing the beauty of the system (Greenhalgh, 1929).
The main advantage of timber frame house construction is that the utilization of energy in building the timber-framed structure is much lowers compared to a typical concrete system of the same perimeters. Less utilization of life means that there is less emission of greenhouse gasses, so the structure in common sense is green. The timber-framed installation requires fewer labours and less skilled persons as it is needed for a similar concrete structure. A simple timber frame structure can be self-built by a person, but a concrete structure cannot be built in such a manner. If any mistake occurs in the construction, it can be corrected in no time or a smaller period but a concrete structure much time to erect an error. Timber is a highly recyclable material. Wood-framed houses generate less waste and thus contributing to a healthy environment (Advantages and Disadvantages of Timber Frame Construction, n.d.).
Timber frame houses take lesser time to be fully furnished, but a cemented structure require more time. A typical timber frame house has a life span of 60 years as it is guaranteed, but the timber frame structure can stand for many more years. An example of the age of such systems is that the timber frame structures of the 12th century can be seen today. That means that good care cans increase the life span of a timber-framed house. Timber-framed houses provide better insulation, which results in less consumption of energy. The thermal efficiency of timber frame houses is much higher than any other material utilized to build structures. Insulation can be increased in timber frame houses by a simple amendment between or after the construction (Advantages and Disadvantages of Timber Frame Construction, n.d.).
Timber frame houses are also known as light frame houses. The frame of such a home is much more lightweight and can carry massive loads. Timber frame houses revolutionized the house building. The history of house building is incomplete without the use of timber or lumber. People used almost every kind and type of wood to build their homes. All type and types of wood can be utilized to build a house, but they are chosen according to the use.