Federal and state organizations sought medical options (Hunter, 2009). The respective federal and state public health authorities had not expected SARS and Anthrax outbreaks. World Health Organization had issued warnings about the spread rate of the diseases that had not yet confirmed if they were caused naturally or through bioterrorist attacks. Public health officials decided to ration medication. The distribution of drugs and vaccines were needed in urgency, but they were not adequate for all cases. Conversely, public health officers’ decisions altered the social order where every individual deserved equal protection from the menace. The distribution plan was not explicit.
Public health officials have sought mass quarantine for the reported rampant cases of anthrax and SARS. The best method of containing outbreaks that had high transmission levels was contemporary mass quarantine. Public health officials could not pinpoint isolated cases of SARS and Anthrax infections. Therefore, contemporary mass quarantines were the best ways to caution the transfer of the pandemic. The decision to use mass quarantine was sufficient, and it received government backup in 2003 outbreaks. The government provided quarantine at home as well as work and progress depended on how the policy was adopted and enforced by the public (Hunter, 2009).
Travel restrictions arose following outbreaks of SARS and Anthrax. The process of protecting in and outbound travelers included the distribution of alert notifications and visual inspections. CDC has undertaken procedures, which have reached at least 2.7 million people in the United States (Hunter, 2009) .The program, faced challenges due to many checkpoints within the airports. Travel advisories followed the screening procedures. The official responsible for issuing travel restrictions and warnings were relevant for containment purposes of SARS and Anthrax. However, the screening procedures stalled the flight operations. The screening process was for the public’s greater good, but it could have been distributed in other areas to avoid congestion.
The best response from the public health officers was mass quarantine. The method proved useful for SARS and Anthrax pandemic that did not target individuals. Transmission level was high, and a rapid and effective method of prevention was needed. However, choosing medication ration did not amount to the form of help except putting at risk the populations that were not covered by the distribution plan.
Question #2: Botulism
CDC classifies botulism as a category-A disease or agent that can be a potential bioterrorist agent. Botulism is a high priority agent that can be transmitted from one person to another (Atrainceu.com, 2015). The disease can cause panic and social disruption. Public health procedures are essential in the event Botulism is mass-produced and disseminated with ease. The condition has a high potent in that it can cause fatality in adults for only one microgram. The action of botulism includes paralysis within the respiratory and muscular regions and eventual death if left untreated. The agent can disrupt public health if it occurs within a geographic clustering such as an open event or gathering.Preparations, planning, protocols, and guidelines in place within the U.S to address the impact of a Botulism outbreak or terrorist attack
The government has a botulism vaccine in case Botulism is used for a terrorist attack or occurs as a natural outbreak. The Department of Defense develops the investigational botulism drug to treat and prevent botulism because of its ability to spread with relative ease. A botulism epidemic requires a trivalent botulism antitoxin provided by the CDC and the state health department. The antitoxins produced with any form of exposure to botulism agents. The state of health department and CDC have instituted strict procedures for patients exposed to the disease. Patients must be skin-tested for any hypersensitivity symptoms before prescription (Atrainceu.com, 2015).
The government has also instituted legislation to prepare for Botulism outbreak or terrorist attack. Chemical and Biological Weapons Control Act took effect from 1991. The Act allows individuals or community that gets Botulism threat to report to the relevant authority. The military and CDC have been entrusted with a sufficient kitty to contain botulism. The $100 million budget is authorized under the provisions of the Defense Authorization Act. The funds are used for acquiring health personnel, training, and detection procedures. Legislation requires health professionals to become the first responders when symptoms of botulism are detected.
The protocol for antitoxin features CDC and California Department of Public Health’s Infant Botulism Treatment and Prevention Program (Friedlander, 2009). The two agencies ensure that there is a sufficient supply of antitoxin. Relevant state health programs in the United States are required to contact the CDC to make clinical consultations and arrangements of the botulism antitoxin. The agencies know that prompt diagnosis is critical for an agent that has a relatively high spread rate. Additionally, the outbreak or terrorist attack may escalate to alarming levels to the point of demand for mechanical ventilation. CDC and State Health Departments provide support care. Immunization has also been studied as a viable option for botulism prevention within the United States.
Question #3: Key Concepts of New Jersey Laws
New Jersey protects workers through minimum wage laws. New Jersey State Wage and Hour Law provide the minimum and overtime wages to shield workers from misuse. The time, mode of payment, and a prohibition of wage withholding ensures that workers get their pay on time. The labor laws also accord workers fringe benefits that enjoy during holidays, sick leave, and vacation under the provisions of New Jersey Wage Payment and Selected Labor Laws. New Jersey prohibits workers from employing minors. The provisions of New Jersey Child Labor Law and Regulations establish particular occupations, working hours, and issuance of certificates to minors. Registration is essential for all employers who engage in public contracting work. Workers are protected under the Public Works Contractor Registration Act and the remuneration packages established by the Act. Healthcare facilities are essential for workers offering their overtime services. Each employer must provide the right health facilities for all workers.
New Jersey Laws and FMLA
Family and Medical Leave Act correspond to the New Jersey Family Leave Act (Lwd.dol.state.nj.us, 2015). Workers get paid for up to 12 weeks when they are in the family and medical leave. Job-protected leave for medical and family reasons ensures that workers cater to expenses arising from the program by being employed. FMLA and NJFLA provide workers with substantial coverage for workers. However, workers under NJFLA do not get time off work as a result of a disability. FMLA fills the gap by ensuring that the employees with a disability get the time they deserve in case of serious illness.
New Jersey Laws and ADA
Americans with Disabilities Act relates to the New Jersey Law Against Discrimination to establish regulations that prevent discrimination in employment practices. Employers must avoid mistreatment based on disability, hereditary disease, genetic test results, and physical challenges. However, an employer is allowed to preclude a worker when the disability interferes with the job. LAD applies to public and private employers of all sizes (Lwd.dol.state.nj.us, 2015).
Question #4: CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response for 2009 H1N1 Flu
The 2009 H1N1 flu influenza occurred when there were government plans for development, refinement, and exercise response plans against the pandemic. CDC teamed up with state and local animal and human health officials to conduct investigations and earth the source of infection. Epidemiologists also conducted relevant surveillance to monitor the extent the virus transmission had taken place. CDC developed a vaccine for H1N1 in April 2009 to protect the masses against the new virus. The Emergency Operations Center followed the vaccination in the same month. The process was completed in 2009 when the H1N1 gene sequences were uploaded in the public database. The courses initiated public health research compared with other agencies around the world (Cdc.gov, 2009).
The milestone for CDC as the leading organization for curbing H1N1 was finding a vaccine for the virus. The process took fast and hardly took four months. The ability to provide emergency and immediate response were pivotal for the CDC emergency preparedness and response program. However, CDC regulated the response program exclusively and limited it to laboratories, health officers, at-risk populations, and antiviral medications. Additionally, there was less communication to the press, and that could have increased the tension among the members of the public. Influenza had become an international concern that required research beyond United States borders.
CDC emergency preparedness and response program for H1N1 was successful. The program covered a scope that provided solutions in the United States and the world at large. The agency coordinated efforts with WHO to address vital aspects of H1N1 and associated illnesses. The surveillance, laboratory, and testing that involved H1N1 called for a pool or resources (McEntire, 2007). The funds came from organizations such as Emergency Use Authorization, National Incident Management System, and epidemiological input from accredited public health officials. The plan that CDC unleashed was long-term and complicated, but it took a short period to initiate projects that would see the world free from H1N1. The program summed up the process by uploading gene sequences to accessible public databases. The databases provide a platform for research and comparison with other influenza findings.
- Atrainceu.com,.(2015). Biological Weapons | Bioterrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction. Retrieved from https://www.atrainceu.com/course-module/1628495-98_terrorist-events-module-3
- Cdc.gov,. (2009). CDC Novel H1N1 Flu | The 2009 H1N1 Pandemic: Summary Highlights, April 2009-April 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm
- Friedlander, M. (2009).Outbreak (2nd ed.). Minneapolis: Lerner Publications.
- Hunter, N. (2009). The law of emergencies. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
- Lwd.dol.state.nj.us,.(2015). Department of Labor and Workforce Development | Laws and Regulations. Retrieved from http://lwd.dol.state.nj.us/labor/wagehour/lawregs/wage_and_hour_laws.html
- McEntire, D. (2007). Disaster response and recovery.Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.