Whether or not non-strategic games reflect the psychology of the decision maker’s instead objectively derived outcomes remains an issue to be discussed. A strategic game is a game which could be computer-based one, video game, paper game or even a board game in which the players’ decision-making skills have a high significance in determining the outcome. Most games the world over include the element of using skills to a greater extent in determining the outcome. The concept involves the use of skills in the game and employing some strategies in the issue, thus making demarcation difficult. It is, therefore, more accurate to describe a particular game as having a certain level of strategic elements. Games are typically based on certain vital principles (Condon 498-410).
In non-strategic games, little skills are involved. There are no predetermined solutions and results, and hence none of the players can determine how the outcome of the game would be. Experience in non-strategic games is not of the essence. The crucial factor that separates this type of play and business models from the rest is that there exists relatively little chance involved. All players, or business partners in a business scenario, have an equal degree of knowledge of the elements of the game or business market constraints. Little or no physical skills are required in this game. Examples of strategic games include the Mastermind, English Draughts, Chess, Go, and the Nine Men’s Morris. Non-strategic games often vary from certain strategic games that include strategic decision taking. Non-strategic games don’t concentrate on critical game issues; they don’t find long-term horizons, and don’t bother with transparency. There is very little or no accounts for uncertainty. The idea of non-strategic games is extensively used by companies and company executives in their decision taking processes.
In general a plan or strategies are compared with chance. Individuals who believe laying down strategy to achieve specific goals do not concentrate so much on issues related to success. This is because of the outcome of games and other activities connected to luck relay so much on probability. Wishful behaviors are not associated with strategic games. Players exist on a continuum from pure talent to pure chance, with typically strategic players at the spectrum talent end (462). There exist so many non-strategic games in Europe and other parts of the world. Some of these games are chess and other chase related games, paper and pencil games such as dot and boxes and the sprouts game, the n-in-a-row games among others. A set of skills is not a strategic game. This is precisely because the outcome is determined mainly by mental and sometimes by the physical abilities and not purely one’s chance.
Non-strategic games, unlike other games of skill, are not a means of exploring one’s capabilities. They also may not allow players to consider what is happening, look into it and even feel it. Technological advances have promoted the use and development of non-strategic games for quite a long time. Also though most sports involve a degree of chance, randomization devices are used mainly to ensure that the chances of an instance repeating itself are minimal. Some of the commonly used randomization devices and games include the coin flip, the dice, playing cards and the random number generator. There is always legal importance in the distinction between chance and the use of skills in accomplishing a given task. Chance games are distinct from those where skills are used, and also chance business management techniques and decision-making models. However, the legal distinction between the two terms is often vague, and it varies widely from one set up to another. Unlike non-strategic games, abstract strategy games are rarely, if at all, loosely connected to a real-world theme. A small category of non-perfect and abstract strategy games and business models are incorporated into hidden information without using random elements.
Non-strategic games go against nature, and they reflect the psychology of the decision maker’s somewhat objective rule. Non-strategic games do not follow specific predefined or known patterns; certain rules are used in arriving at the derived outcomes. The fact that the games’ outcome is derived reveals the idea that the rules come from a given source of origin and can be deduced or inferred by reasoning or gotten from another source. The concept of having a database from which specific results would be deducted from should a particular input be made is therefore quite crucial.
Games Against Nature
Non-strategic games are considered to be games that go against nature. Naturally, sports, especially those played by human beings, involve the use of intellect. Skills are, therefore, a core requirement for the success of individuals participating in strategic games. The games also do not use the natural characteristic of actual players. Instead, simulation is used by the participants of the games. Such games are also considered to be abstract. Abstract games cannot be divided entirely from simulations. So games can be thought of as existing on a continuum of almost pure abstraction such as abalone to almost pure simulation which is used in the start-o-Matic baseball.
Naturally, decision making is a very complicated process. The primary reasons why this so includes people’s evasive nature to risks, multiple decision-makers, lack of the desire to be accountable for outcomes that may not be desirable, and the fact that there are always many individuals who are held with the responsibility of making decisions. In an easy natural setup, a game involves decision making, which is relatively a complicated process. The analysis is thus very fundamental in the designation and playing a game. Low-quality scan often has oversights such as the real decision-maker not being involved, the actual target player also not being consulted, avoiding including the implementation personnel in the whole process, having biased information hence biased results and new requirements may be raised after full recommendations have been made.
The term decision analysis is becoming broadly used in many industries. While it can be used descriptively, here we use the normative meaning. Analysis of concrete decisions is a present-day technique, explaining how things are. Normative decision analysis is a future-state approach, explaining how things should be. Nature also appreciates the high value of perfect information even though there is hardly perfection of details concerning a particular scenario. Often we can, at a cost, reduce our uncertainty about nature’s future events, and this could be done using market research, forecasting and statistical analysis. There must be a limit to what we should spend in these endeavors. The value of less comprehensive information usually is low within a market setup. Often we can, at a small fee, buy more certainty about the near future. Even in natural structure, the probability is a state of mind, and it is limited to the concept of an individual being a risk or loss averse, risk-neutral, or risk preferring.
Natural setup also entails the use of garbage in garbage out. In such a structure, whatever information inputted into the system during the designation process become the expected results from the system. It is, therefore, difficult to maintain objectivity. This leads to situations where there is no commitment without quality which is usually a means of measuring success. Strategies such as those employed in the strategy video games, the real-time strategy and the turn-based strategy are not used in the non-strategic types of games. The games which usually are not real-time strategy games typically do not have a detailed storyline and are thus non-role playing. Furthermore, most non-strategic games are not real-time and therefore do not offer the players actual world which can experience climate, day and night or weather changes depending on the game setup.
In real-life scenarios, decision variables are used in the playing of games and the determination of the final results. The decision variables that may be involved may include the marketing potential, personal selling, advertising, research and development, consumer preference, research and product improvement, production and inventory, finance and accounting, competition, marketing information, general planning, marketing growth and competitive strategies and pricing.
Playing non-strategic games requires from the players the ability to abstract interactive relationships among the variables incorporated in the game, the commitment of a vast amount of time for the preparation of digital inputs, a relatively lengthy lapse time designated for the game playing, and the availability of considerable computer facilities and computer time. The non-computerized marketing planning and strategy game developed involves twelve interactive decision variables. Since the game only involves limited variables, a player is expected to grasp the relationship and the trade-off of each variable introduced in the game. The player is not required to utilize digital input; thus, the time demanded input preparation and the waiting time for the turn-around of game outputs is minimized. All data are keenly analyzed by the designated manager. Consequently, input errors which are frequently induced in keypunch decisions are eliminated. The elimination of the input error minimizes the disturbances of the overall output of the industry caused by fundamental punch errors.
On the other hand, the use of traditional risk analysis neglects the fact that terrorists are intelligent and adaptive to various situations. The study and research in non-strategic research help to integrate game theory and decision theory in the business environment. The search for equilibrium performance solutions is never-ending in the world. There is always the need to use subjective probabilities to describe the choices of other players in the games and business as a whole. This research will develop methods and techniques for identifying optimal strategies for rational defenders when facing non-strategic players, making it possible to explore the sensitivity of optimal defender strategies to assumptions about the behavior of other players. We plan to apply the results of this research to real-world data, and compare the results to fully endogenous game-theoretic results developed which create funding. The results of this work have the potential to make game-theoretic homeland-security models more realistic and much easier to implement.
Mathematics is usually employed in the planning and development of the non-strategic games. While von Neumann, Morgenstern, and others’ mathematical models are esthetically pleasing and provide a solid foundation for thinking about sports, as these experiments and others demonstrate, elegant models often deviate from more complex realities.
The latest development of games that have gone against nature is the current existence of robots. A robot is mechanical and a virtually artificial agent. It is an electromechanical machine which is guided by electronic and at times computer programming. How a robot is designed enables it to perform specific pre-programmed tasks on its own. Also, another characteristic that is quite common in the movement and working principle of a robot to men is its movement. A robot often conveys a given sense that it has intention or specific agency that is of its own.
The perspective of games and that of doing business and addressing customer needs has changed. This is because the player preferences have changed too. If a non-strategic game is being designed, then the concept of original games is lost. The audience may be the fans or the designer themselves in other circumstances. Several characteristics and preferences continue to emerge regarding how strategic games need to be developed.
To begin with, there is a need for positive scoring mechanisms that reinforce success and encourage the player to continue developing in their career. Writing of notes or doing of pure mathematics by the player in the non-strategic game should not be supported. Instead, a player should have a steadily reduced number of plausible choices. There is a dire need to ensure that the creation of non-strategic games is done using visible and more robust visual orientation, thus reducing the uncertainty of information. This would also provide a reduced rate of player-to-player conflicts. Most business strategies are the same, even though they operate in different environments. This is regardless of whether or not one uses an electronic machine and other new technologies or not.
The possibility of having a well-known predetermined state of the future remains elusive. According to the Nobel Laureate, Fredrick Von Hayek, the future is unknowable. It is to determine what may happen in future. This fact can be attributed to so many factors that determine what happens in human life and the complex and ever-changing environment that surrounds people. Econometrics, which combines economic theories and statistical concepts to analyze and test financial relationships, also has the responsibility of developing and applying analytical or quantitative methods to the study of various economic principles. Many econometric methods and principles represent applications of standard statistical models. There are also some features of financial data that distinguish it from other branches of statistics. Most economic data are mainly observational as opposed to being derived from controlled experiments in life. The field of econometrics has developed various methods for the identification and estimation of simultaneous equation models. Through the use of econometric techniques, researchers can now make causal inferences in the absence of controlled experiments. Early work in econometrics focused on time-series data, but now econometrics also fully covers cross-sectional and panel data used in the making of non-strategic games.
However, this does not mean that econometrics and other predictive techniques are of no practical use. The unknowable future makes the concept of econometrics much more critical and fundamental than ever. The significant purposes of econometrics are economic theories to potentially falsifying tests and giving empirical content to the economic arguments. According to the economic theory, an increase in the overall price would also lead to a decrease in the quantity of the product or service demanded. This, however, depends on the fact that all other relevant factors are assumed to be held constant.
Technology has become a significant driving force in the manner in which people do business. It has even changed the overall way of life; hence it is considered an autonomous force. It is inconsistent, and ever-evolving nature clearly explains the fact that non-strategic management should be taking shape and ensuring that business tries to maximize on the latest technologies. Realization of new concepts and development of new information technologies have continued to shape both the business world and the sporting environment. This has improved the standards of life in general due to faster and better ways of carrying out such activities in the most cost-effective and efficient manner. The continued research on the non-strategic games, though they seem to go against nature, has ensured that more findings of the best ways of doing business are realized. Researchers have over the years continued to come up with new findings which, if implemented, would result in better performance of all the aspects of the non-strategic game.
The high degree of life unpredictability and unknowable future on the non-strategic games has complicated the strategic growth and the reliability. Individuals would prefer a future where they can foresee. The high-level unknowable life, however, has become very difficult, causing the users to question the non-strategic games and business models. Nevertheless, we are already witnessing the emergence of the sector and economic changes which are set to have a profound effect on how businesses need to be done over the coming decade. These shifts include the rise of the fourth sector of industry where companies increasingly derive their profits from ethical and more sustainable engagements as well as philanthropic efforts and business models. There is also the need to develop and invest in the interpersonal economy in which the growth of an economic model requires social, emotional and high-human touch skills that cannot be automated, thus being non-strategic. The use of the emo-economics may also be of great importance. In this case, there would be increased favor to the marginalized and particular groups of people in society. This would ensure that specific individuals in the community are encompassed in the development of the non-strategic approaches and the development of the non-strategic games as well as the available business modules.
Fredrick Von Hayek, who is a well-known Wall Street pioneer and renowned investment consultant, said that the future, though not well known, can be predicted and crucial plans made. Von, who believed in the power of learning and making mistakes and attempting to correct them, argues that non-strategic and predictive games are still of great importance. The strategies, according to Von, are still practical even though some adjustments need to be made to them in a manner in which they are implemented. He also believes in taking more significant risks and giving considerations to the consequences if the investment decision is found to be wrong.
Fredrick also argues that it is good to take higher risks with small amounts of capital, and never take low risks with significant amounts of money. This would ensure that no big financial risks are suffered since this would make it difficult for a business enterprise to come out of the challenges and continue doing business. This is an idea that not so many companies have been able to exploit in the world market. It has, therefore led to very few individuals and businesses dominating the market through the simple fact that they do adequate research and realize how fundamental non-strategic means of managing companies are done. Preservation of capital is always a very central fact in the market. Whooping loses can however not be entirely avoided even though efforts can be made to, so that loses considerably reduced. Businesses should have the discipline to re-assess if a holding declines significantly.
According to Condon (456), the ‘Games against nature’s concept reflects the psychology of the decision-maker rather objective rule derived outcomes. It is only through the decision-maker that a given business solution is understood. Even though the future may not precisely be determined, some issues that relate to it in the business arena can be predefined, analyzed, and a few questions that relate to it dealt with. Econometrics and other predictive techniques are also fundamental in determining the future aspects of a business.
In case of rapid decline in the prices of stock, a sudden spike in the rate of oil, high unemployment or even a paradigm shift in the customer preferences to specific commodities, the media should be counted on to help. This can be replaced with an individual who was not as deterministic but yet could predict the future happening of the business. This should however not be surprising since there are many professional economists, accountants and commentators who cannot restrain themselves from making economic predictions on how the market is likely to be. In the end, some of the predictions made customarily come true. Most business managers are, however, able to distinguish between luck and skill in predicting the future. Managers should also try to be obscure yet inspiring and willing to take business risks.
Non-strategic games in the business, and to some extent in sports, needless distinguished economists to perform better and ensure that their area of business thrives against those of the competitors. This is true regardless of the economic situations in the market and the business trends. The managers can forecast the future of the market. Should the businesses go way outside the cluster, and the outcome is in the group, nobody will remember the wrong forecast made in the previous years. They would neither lose nor gain anything. The rational choice for such an undistinguished economist in management and operation of a business enterprise is to make extreme predictions, corroborated with pessimistic scenarios that make such forecasts plausible. If the economist is wrong, nothing is lost; if they are right, great publicity can be expected. In technical terms, people would say that the manager has access to a positive-sum game against nature.
In the world of doing business, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) that controls paradigm would be used. There is the realization of random disturbance which is known when the decision time is introduced. Non-strategic games, therefore, involve taking chances in the decision-making process. In games, nature selects the disturbance signal randomly and the player, having access to the random disturbance information, uses a feedback module that could be a stroboscopic strategy. The closed-form optimal solution is derived and is compared to the resolution of the classical linear quadratic Gaussian problem.
Furthermore, the Gaussian assumption is relaxed, and the interesting game-theoretic interpretation is analyzed. Maintenance of objectivity, though possible, is not easy in non-strategic business management. This leads to situations where there is no commitment without quality which usually is a means of measuring success (Condon 478-456). Strategies such as those employed in the strategy video games, the real-time strategy and the turn-based strategy are not used in the non-strategic types of games. Normally non-real time strategy games do not have detailed story lines and are thus non-role playing games.
In conclusion, it is worthwhile to appreciate that most of the digital marketing games today involve complex environments and are time-consuming in preparing of inputs and executing the game and demand sophisticated computer facilities and a great deal of time. Many small colleges are characterized by students with limited knowledge and limited ability to abstract the interactive with variables incorporated in these sophisticated games. These facts make the execution of advanced and time-consuming marketing games impractical to these institutions.
- Condon, Anne. Space-bounded probabilistic game automata; Journal of the ACM (JAMCM), v.38 n.2, 1991, pp. 410-498.